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What is an IP address?

An IP address (Internet Protocol) is a number that is assigned to a device on a network so that it can be identified. IP addresses can be static or dynamic.

IP address formats

The IP addresses are formed by a series of 32 bits, separated into four octets that are represented in decimal format.
These addresses are divided into two parts: Network and Host. The part that indicates the network defines which network the data packet is directed to. On the other hand, the host part points to which computer within that network is directed to.

Ip address formatHere we can see how an IP address is formed. Each octet (8 bits) corresponds to the network or host address, depending on the type of network that is.


Now, networks and ip addresses are divided into five classes: A, B, C, D and E, identified in the first octet (8 bits = 1 byte).
Classes A are large networks, which have many devices. Those of Class B are medium. Those of Class C are small, with few devices. Class D is multicast, which means that the sending of data is received on several devices. And finally, those of Class E are reserved for experimentation and testing.

Network class
1st byte
Format
Scope
A
0 - 127
red.host.host.host
1.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255
B
128 - 191
red.red.host.host
128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255
C
192 - 223
red.red.red.host
192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255
D
224 - 239
- - -
224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
E
240 - 255
- - -
240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255
Here we can see the details of each of the five classes of networks and Ip addresses.

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